Types of Augmented Reality
Augmented reality does not end at your smartphone. There are many more ways to enhance your perception of the world. Several categories of augmented reality technology exist, each with varying differences in their objectives and applicational use cases.
There are two primary types of AR implementations: Marker Based and Markerless.
- Marker-based implementation utilizes some type of image such as a QR/2D code to produce a result when it is sensed by a reader, typically a camera on a cell phone.
- Markerless AR is often more reliant on the capabilities of the device being used such as the GPS location, velocity meter, etc. It may also be referred to as Location-based or Position-based AR.
Both Marker-based and Markerless AR require AR specific software or browsers to function. Marker-based AR is currently the most prevalent and easiest to accomplish. While Markerless AR is emerging,
Below, we explore the various types of technologies that make up augmented reality
Marker Based/Recognition based Augmented Reality:
Marker-based augmented reality (also called Recognition based) uses a camera focuses on recognition of real world objects or some type of visual markers, such as a QR/2D code or NFT markers, to produce a result only when the marker is sensed by a reader. Marker-based applications use a camera on the device to distinguish a marker from any other real world object.
Simple patterns (such as a QR code) oR actual real world image (NFT) or real world object (CAD based detection) are used as the markers. The position and orientation are also calculated, in which some type of content or information has then overlaid the marker. Once the recognition is complete, it replaces the marker on screen with a 3D version of the corresponding object. This allows the user to investigate the object in more detail and from various angles. Rotating the marker would rotate the 3D imagery as well.
- Markerless/Location-based Augmented Reality:
As one of the most widely implemented applications of augmented reality, markerless (also called location-based) augmented reality, uses a GPS, digital compass, velocity meter, or accelerometer which is embedded in the device to provide data based on your location. A strong force behind markerless augmented reality technology is the wide availability of smartphones and location detection features they provide. It is most commonly used for mapping directions, finding nearby businesses, and other location-centric mobile applications.
- Projection-Based Augmented Reality:
Projection based augmented reality works by projecting artificial light onto real world surfaces. Projection on objects can be used to create deception about the position, orientation, and depth of an object. In such a case an object is taken into consideration and its structure is studied in depth.
Projection based augmented reality applications allow for human interaction by sending light onto a real world surface and then sensing the human interaction (i.e. touch) of that projected light. Detecting the user’s interaction is done by differentiating between an expected (or known) projection and the altered projection (caused by the user’s interaction). Another interesting application of projection-based augmented reality utilizes laser plasma technology to project a three-dimensional (3D) interactive hologram into mid-air.
- Outlining Augmented Reality:
Superimposition based augmented reality either partially or fully replaces the original view of an object with a newly augmented view of that same object. In superimposition based augmented reality, object recognition plays a vital role because the application cannot replace the original view with an augmented one if it cannot determine what the object is. A strong consumer-facing example of superimposition based augmented reality could be found in the Ikea augmented reality furniture catalog. By downloading an app and scanning selected pages in their printed or digital catalog, users can place virtual Ikea furniture in their own home with the help of augmented reality.
Once again, object recognition sits behind all that outlining AR can do and might look a bit like a projection-based AR.For example, whenever you’re parking your modern car in the dark, outlining AR recognizes the boundaries of the road and outlines them for you. This method can also be used in architecture and engineering to outline buildings and their supporting pillars.
These types use more multiple sensors and may produce the result in different forms. Such systems employ special faculties of dedicated devices working in parallel with processing systems with algorithms developed especially for being used in AR. As more input and output devices converge to more powerful and efficient systems, we would come across more types of AR in future.